Water is essential for life; also, it is intimately a vital part to maintain the quality of life worldwide. While water scarcity as a measure issue that many regions of the globe are facing, there are water quality problems too. Changes in nature are affecting the quality and quantity of water because of unbalanced natural cycles of water.
Water systems also get changes so that water quality. Changes in water quality impact badly on human health. Globe has a fixed amount of clean water, so its delivery rate to the human being is reducing because of its scarcity. Also, earth’s water is getting contaminated by humans daily, it will affect human health and, ultimately, their life. Water quality issues will lead to unhealthy human beings.
Here are two critical reasons for the change in water quality written below:
Chemical constituents in water
Natural sources, as well as because of human activity water can get chemically contaminated. Chemical contaminants (any unwanted substances) can make water unsafe and unusable too. Water’s chemical contaminant is a measure in many countries. Like in developing countries, people dumped the 70% untreated things into natural water sources from their Industrial wastes. It badly pollutes the water, and that water doesn’t remain usable, so it gets wasted.
‘Eutrophication’ is one of the most prevalent worldwide water quality issues. It means that an excess of chemical substituents mainly the Nitrogen & Phosphorous in the water body. Usually, it happens because of the runoff from the lands. Like agricultural fertilizers or animal, wastes are some of the main reasons for the Eutrophication. It can lead to severe global problems such as impairing use for drinking water, fish kills, food harvesting, etc.
Chemical constituents found in drinking waters don’t harm immediately to humans. Still, they slowly-slowly affect the body, although there’s an exceptional substituent named ‘Nitrates’ that affect badly and cause adverse health states from prolonged exposure.
Some significant impacts of Nitrate in Drinking water written here:
- It can cause ‘methemoglobinemia,’ which means an abnormal hemoglobin condition.
- It is also known as ‘blue baby syndrome’ in infants (newborn babies).
- It can cause coma or death if it doesn’t get proper treatment.
- 10mg/L is the EPA’s maximum contaminant level (MCL) for nitrate to protect against the ‘blue baby syndrome’.
Microbial Contamination in Drinking Water
Microbial contamination means be the presence of harmful microbes in the water. Bacteria can grow because of the addition of wildlife waste or human sewage etc. Pathogens such as Salmonella species, Legionella, Shigella, etc. can grow into the drinking water because of microbial contamination. These pathogens lead to cause diarrhea and gastrointestinal diseases.
The bacteria named Vibrio cholerae causes Cholera that is a water-borne disease and can lead to death. World Health Organization has reported that approx. 1.3 to 4.0 million cases are there about this disease. Also, there are death cases, especially in developing countries with 21,000 to 143,000 in all over worldwide.
Water quality has significant effects on public health. A lot of diseases such as diarrhea, typhoid, dysentery, and Cholera, etc. are affecting human health. Many people are facing water scarcity because of no water availability in their regions, and that leads to dehydration.